The process of paper production is as follows:
The cellulose fibers are placed in water to absorb moisture and swell and soften; then they spread them on a delicate wired grid so that the water in the fibers is taken and the fibers dip on the surface of the grid and become flat. The fibers are closely related to the loss of water, and at the points where the fibers are placed together, a chemical bond is formed of the hydrogen bond and connects them together.
This connection and the connection itself is the key to producing a sticky and firmly-bound paper. In this case, no additional glue is needed and the paper is made from cellulosic fiber and dried out.
Paper in the Western world and before the emergence of paper making machines in the first half of the nineteenth century, cotton or linen fibers were mainly made up of garments and clothing. Today, at least 70 percent of the paper produced in the world is derived from wood fiber derivatives, and 30 percent are from vegetable fibers such as bagasse (cane sugar), straw, and straw.
Still, certain types of paper are made from some vegetable fibers, such as cotton, linen, and hemp. These papers are used to prepare bills, works of art, fine print jobs, works to be protected and kept, and to repair and repair damaged old exquisite books.
Preparation of fibers in the paper industry. The first step in the production of paper is the separation of fibers from their main bedding in the wood. They say this process is pulping, which has two main methods:
۱٫ Mechanical molding, in which mechanical grinding operations are used to grind wood and remove fibrous particles from inside it.
۲- Chemical pulping, in which wood chips are affected by chemical combinations using heat and pressure. The product obtained by the chemical method is less than the product of the mechanical method, but the resulting fibers are more inert and can be made of a much firmer paper. There are currently processes in paper making that take advantage of the properties of both methods. If the white paper is desired, the washing operation (bleaching) should also be included in the manufacturing process.
A major aspect of the paper industry is the process by which hard-walled fibers are subjected to intense mechanical payment. Blowing or filtration acts on the mechanical properties of paper. For example, the increase in the charge increases the strength of the apparent density of the fibers, and its direct effect on the fiber makes it more flexible, which causes the fibers to lie on each other and create more contact surfaces. In this way, the bond between fibers is strengthened. Of course, this process is very complicated.
Paper non-refillable components.
In the production of papers used for printing or writing, it is used as a filler. The use of this material has many benefits, such as increased matt, smoothness, and uniformity of paper. Common fill materials are chinese and gypsum (calcium carbonate).
The share of filler materials in paper can be high and between 25% and 30% by weight of paper. Most paper is subjected to corrective actions in order to control their reaction with water and other fluids. A paper made entirely of cellulosic fiber absorbs water with great ease. Such paper is not suitable for writing with pen or ink. In addition, in many commercial applications, paper is resistant to moisture. The process of refining paper to water is called “sparkling”.
As it is famous, it is used extensively. This process involves adding sparkling materials to the material containing fibrous particles before forming the paper. The common material is a type of wood resin reinforced with aluminum sulfate, and paper designers call it green alum.
Green alum, fix resin on the fiber surface. Unfortunately, the result of the shrinking process is the acidification of paper due to the use of green alum. This acidic state remains in the paper, and the main reason for the gradual loss of paper resistance is this. In recent years, domestic abrasive methods have been developed with neutral or alkaline materials that can largely prevent burns.
Internal shampooing with superficial abrasion and scouring, which includes the repair of paper with starch or gelatin or similar materials, is completely different.
In the industry, paper adds some other materials, albeit in a very small amount, to give it a special attribute, for example, it can resist moisture or increase its clarity and adjust its color and shadow.
Cover and pay for paper levels
The surface coating material of the paper surface is an important non-volatile component of the paper. One of these examples is glossy papers used in magazines, sometimes used for books. Coatings are usually based on powdery powdery pigments of clay and calcium carbonate, and should not be confused with fillers. The result of this is the production of highly desirable and well-printed paper.
When it can expect the paper to be exhausted, its properties are measured and controlled. There are three important features for optimal paper:
۱- Properties of the paper manufacturer: such as strength, weight (mass per unit area), and apparent density
۲٫ Paper-level properties: such as filtering, which has a key role in the conversion process, such as print.
۳٫ Visual features: mostly color, transparency, and matt.
The paper used for the book should be tight enough and its color and transparency are acceptable. From the point of view of conservation and maintenance, one of the major issues is the burnout over time. Color variation due to burnout is also important, but its importance is related to the type of work that paper is supposed to do; for example, color in art books is very important.
Principle Method of Mac Character Study